Diabetes is a lifelong disease in which the blood glucose level of a person becomes higher than the normal level. It is a progressive disease; hence, it is important to diagnose diabetes at an early stage as it become worse if not treated. The patient should be treated as soon as he or she is diagnosed with diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder as the pancreas is not producing enough insulin or the body becomes insulin resistant. Insulin production is important for the body to maintain the glucose level in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is seen mainly in people suffering from obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
Type 2 diabetes does not occur all of a sudden. It usually develops gradually as the body cannot use insulin to breakdown glucose. Hence, glucose level in the bloodstream keeps on increasing gradually. The pancreas tries to produce more insulin to bring down the glucose level in the blood stream. However, the pancreas loses its capacity of insulin production gradually. This leads to the need of insulin injections for the person on a daily basis. Since type 2 diabetes is not developed overnight, people can take proper measures to prevent the disease. Obesity and inactivity can cause type 2 diabetes because cytokines are released into the blood stream by the fatty tissues resulting in arterial inflammation.
Inflammation triggers insulin resistance as it slows down the activity of insulin, which leads to the ineffective use of insulin and thereby body tissues are damaged. The body increases the production of beta cells to produce more insulin to make the blood glucose level normal, but the lipid level becomes abnormal. HDL cholesterol level decreases and triglyceride level may increase gradually. Sometimes, the blood pressure also increases.
Over a period, the production of beta cells reduces. This decrease in beta cell production results in the increase of blood sugar level after meals, but the fasting and before-meal glucose level may be normal. Gradually, the beta cells cannot produce enough insulin to make the blood glucose level normal resulting in pre-diabetic condition. When the pancreas cannot meet the requirement of insulin, the glucose level keeps on increasing, resulting in type 2 diabetes. This is diagnosed in most people when they have already lost over 80% of the ability to produce insulin.
The best way to avoid complications due to high glucose level is to diagnose the diabetes as soon as possible. To diagnose diabetes, you should undergo blood and urine tests. The risk factors of diabetes are family history, age, and ethnicity. If you are 40 years and above with a family history of diabetes, then you should undergo blood and urine tests to measure the blood sugar level. Ethnicity of the person is also a deciding factor. In a urine test, a sample of urine is taken to detect the sugar level. Conversely, a urine test itself is not enough to diagnose diabetes. Hence, a blood test also has to be performed to determine the blood sugar level. In most cases, a person is diagnosed with diabetes during a routine check up or when the tests are performed in a person with any other disease.